THE FUTURE IN ENERGY
As greener technologies progress in the areas of electric vehicles, power generation and storage, the increased demand and lack of supply of lithium has demonstrated a need for the development of new lithium resources like E3’s.
- Batteries required for large scale grid storage and electric vehicles need to be as lightweight and compact as possible while still providing high energy density
- Lithium is the lightest metal on the periodic table
- Lithium has an extremely high electrochemical potential
What’s in a battery?
A lithium-ion battery contains a variety of chemical components to allow lithium ions to move back and forth between the cathode & anode:
LMO Lithium Manganese Oxide
- Shorter lifespan and usually blended with NMC chemistries or aluminum to enhance the performance
- LMO-NMC blends were utilized in Nissan Leaf EV models
NMC Lithium Nickel Manganese Oxide
- Increased nickel content provides better battery density while at the same time becoming more unstable
NCA Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide
- High energy and power densities with longer life span
- Used in Tesla/Panasonic batteries
LFP Lithium Iron Phosphate
- Longer cycle life and more stable than most other lithium-ion batteries
- Does not contain nickel or cobalt
Lithium Carbonate vs Lithium Hydroxide
Lithium Carbonate is the predominant chemical for lithium-ion battery production. It historically sells for less than lithium hydroxide and the trend is moving toward more lithium hydroxide demand and less lithium carbonate. Both lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide can be used directly as battery cathode material Lithium hydroxide is most commonly produced from lithium carbonate, but can also be produced electrochemically from lithium sulfate or lithium chloride solutions. The production of battery cathode material is more efficient using lithium hydroxide and some cathode types require it vs lithium carbonate.